# Types of Financial Ratios

Liquidity ratios show a company’s current assets in relation to current liabilities. The information used to calculate liquidity ratios comes from a company’s balance sheet. Important liquidity ratios are the current, quick and cash ratios.

The cash ratio determines the ability of a company to immediately pay for their current liabilities with liquid assets. Higher-leverage ratios show a company is in a better position to meet its debt obligations than a lower ratio. The quick ratio is an indicator of a company’s short-term liquidity position and measures a company’s ability to meet its short-term obligations with its most liquid assets. An acid test is a quick test designed to produce instant results—hence, the name.

## Introduction to Financial Statement Analysis

Liquidity ratios measure a company’s ability to pay off its short-term debts as they become due, using the company’s current or quick assets. Liquidity ratios include the current ratio, quick ratio, and working capital ratio. The quick ratio is more conservative than the current ratio because it excludes inventory and other current assets, which are generally more difficult to turn into cash. The quick ratio considers only assets that can be converted to cash very quickly. The current ratio, on the other hand, considers inventory and prepaid expense assets.

These help a firm maintain the required level of short-term solvency. The quick ratio shows how quickly a company can convert its quick assets into cash to clear its current dues, without disturbing its capital assets. A business may have a large amount of money as accounts receivable, which may bump up the quick ratio. This may include essential business expenses and accounts payable that need immediate payment. Despite having a healthy healthy accounts receivable balance, the quick ratio might actually be too low, and the business could be at risk of of running out of cash.

Plug the corresponding balance into the equation and perform the calculation. Note that Inventory is excluded from the sum of assets in the Quick Ratio, but included in the Current Ratio. Ratios are tests of viability for business entities but do not give a complete picture of the business’ health.

On the other hand, a company could negotiate rapid receipt of payments from its customers and secure longer terms of payment from its suppliers, which would keep liabilities on the books longer. By converting accounts receivable to cash faster, it may have a healthier quick ratio and be fully equipped to pay off its current liabilities. To calculate the quick ratio, locate each of the formula components on a company’s balance sheet in the current assets and current liabilities sections.

## Liquidity ratios

The quick ratio measures the dollar amount of liquid assets available against the dollar amount of current liabilities of a company. The quick ratio or acid test ratio is aliquidity ratiothat measures the ability of a company to pay its current liabilities when they come due with only quick assets. Quick assets are current assets that can be converted to cash within 90 days or in the short-term. Cash, cash equivalents, short-term investments or marketable securities, and current accounts receivable are considered quick assets.

Sometimes company financial statements don’t give a breakdown of quick assets on thebalance sheet. In this case, you can still calculate the quick ratio even if some of the quick asset totals are unknown. Simply subtract inventory and any current prepaid assets from the current asset total for the numerator. The quick ratio is calculated by adding cash, cash equivalents, short-term investments, and current receivables together then dividing them by current liabilities. These ratios determine the company’s ability to pay off its long-term debt.

The working capital ratio is calculated by dividing current assets by current liabilities. The Acid Test or Quick Ratio measures the ability of a company to use its assets to retire its current liabilities immediately. The quick ratio, also known as acid-test ratio, is a financial ratio that measures liquidity using the more liquid types of current assets. The acid test ratio measures the liquidity of a company by showing its ability to pay off its current liabilities with quick assets. If a firm has enough quick assets to cover its total current liabilities, the firm will be able to pay off its obligations without having to sell off any long-term orcapital assets.

In other words, liquidity ratios are an indicator of a company’s capacity to clear its current liabilities (liabilities that need to be cleared in a year). They indicate not only the levels of cash but also assets that can be quickly converted into cash for meeting its obligations. A quick ratio that is greater than 1 means that the company has enough quick assets to pay for its current liabilities. Quick assets (cash and cash equivalents, marketable securities, and short-term receivables) are current assets that can be converted very easily into cash. Hence, companies with good quick ratios are favored by creditors.

In contrast, if the business has negotiated fast payment or cash from customers, and long terms from suppliers, it may have a very low Quick Ratio and yet be very healthy. Quick assets include those current assets that presumably can be quickly converted to cash at close to their book values. A company with a Quick Ratio of less than 1 cannot pay back its current liabilities. The current ratio is an indication of a firm’s market liquidity and ability to meet creditor’s demands. Acceptable current ratios vary from industry to industry and are generally between 1.5 and 3 for healthy businesses.

In most companies, inventory takes time to liquidate, although a few rare companies can turn their inventory fast enough to consider it a quick asset. Prepaid expenses, though an asset, cannot be used to pay for current liabilities, so they’re omitted from the quick ratio.

- Liquidity ratios show a company’s current assets in relation to current liabilities.

### How do you calculate ratio analysis?

Ratio analysis consists of calculating financial performance using five basic types of ratios: profitability, liquidity, activity, debt, and market.

In such a situation, firms should consider investing excess capital into middle and long term objectives. In the example above, the quick ratio of 1.19 shows that GHI Company has enough current assets to cover its current liabilities. For every $1 of current liability, the company has $1.19 of quick assets to pay for it. Higher quick ratios are more favorable for companies because it shows there are more quick assets than current liabilities.

## Limitations of Ratio Analysis

If a company’s current ratio is in this range, then it generally indicates good short-term financial strength. If current liabilities exceed current assets (the current ratio is below 1), then the company may have problems meeting its short-term obligations. If the current ratio is too high, then the company may not be efficiently using its current assets or its short-term financing facilities.

It indicates that the company is fully equipped with exactly enough assets to be instantly liquidated to pay off its current liabilities. For instance, a quick ratio of 1.5 indicates that a company has $1.50 of liquid assets available to cover each $1 of its current liabilities.

## Solvency ratios

### What is ratio analysis and its types?

Ratio analysis is the comparison of line items in the financial statements of a business. Ratio analysis is used to evaluate a number of issues with an entity, such as its liquidity, efficiency of operations, and profitability.

A company with a quick ratio of 1 indicates that quick assets equal current assets. This also shows that the company could pay off its current liabilities without selling any long-term assets. An acid ratio of 2 shows that the company has twice as many quick assets than current liabilities. Take for example Current ratio that compares current assets to current liabilities, both derived from the balance sheet. Other examples include Quick Ratio, Capital Gearing Ratio, Debt-Equity ratio etc.

Liquidity ratios measure a company’s ability to meet its debt obligations using its current assets. When a company is experiencing financial difficulties and is unable to pay its debts, it can convert its assets into cash and use the money to settle any pending debts with more ease. Every firm has to ensure that some of its assets are liquid, in case it requires cash immediately. So the liquidity of a firm is measured by ratios such as Current ratio and Quick Ratio.

## Ratio analysis

The quick ratio is a more conservative version of the current ratio. It uses a similar formula but does not include inventory in its calculation.

The quick ratio is considered a more conservative measure than the current ratio, which includes all current assets as coverage for current liabilities. The quick ratio indicates a company’s capacity to pay its current liabilities without needing to sell its inventory or get additional financing. Assessing the health of a company in which you want to invest involves understanding its liquidity—how easily that company can turn assets into cash to pay short-term obligations.