Top 7 Types of Journal Entries – Explained!

Top 7 Types of Journal Entries – Explained!

Jul 23, 2020 Bookkeeping 101 by ann

Advances in technology, however, make it easier and less tedious to record transactions, and you don’t need to maintain each book of accounts separately. The person entering data in any module of your company’s accounting or bookkeeping software may not even be aware of these repositories. In many of these software applications, the data entry person need only click a drop-down menu to enter a transaction in a ledger or journal. An accounting journal entry is the method used to enter an accounting transaction into the accounting records of a business.

However, these journals were more visible in the manual record-keeping days. With the advent of technology, the task of record keeping has been made easy with all the information being stored in a single repository with no specialty journals in use. Business diary in which all financial data (taken usually from a journal voucher) pertaining to the day to day business transactions of a firm is recorded using double-entry bookkeeping system.

Definition of General Journal

Special journals (in the field of accounting) are specialized lists of financial transaction records which accountants call journal entries. In contrast to a general journal, each special journal records transactions of a specific type, such as sales or purchases. For example, when a company purchases merchandise from a vendor, and then in turn sells the merchandise to a customer, the purchase is recorded in one journal and the sale is recorded in another. Simply defined, a general journal refers to a book of original entry in which accountants and bookkeepers record business transactions, in order, according to the date events occur. A general journal is the first place where data is recorded, and every page in the item features dividing columns for dates, serial numbers, as well as debit or credit records.

A general ledger represents the record-keeping system for a company’s financial data with debit and credit account records validated by a trial balance. The general ledger provides a record of each financial transaction that takes place during the life of an operating company. A T account is a graphic representation of a general ledger account. The name of the account is placed above the “T” (sometimes along with the account number).

Double-entry transactions, called journal entries, are posted in two columns, with debit entries on the left and credit entries on the right, and the total of all debit and credit entries must balance. The general ledger is more of a summary at the account level of every business transaction which comes from various journals containing chronological accounting entries. This information entered into the journal and summarised into the ledger is then aggregated further into a trial balance, which is used to generate the financial statements of the business entity. It is the entry point for any kind of business transaction to make its way into the books of accounts of the company before it flows to the next level of classification of transactions in accountancy.

Debit and credit changes caused by each transaction in individual ledger-accounts are subsequently entered in (posted to) the firm’s general ledger. Depending on the nature of its operations and number of daily transactions, a firm may keep several types of specialized journals such as cash journal (cash book), purchases journal, and sales journal. The most common is general journal, used where no special journal exists or in which transactions not belonging to other journals are entered (see journal entry).

The accounting records are aggregated into the general ledger, or the journal entries may be recorded in a variety of sub-ledgers, which are later rolled up into the general ledger. This information is then used to construct financial statements as of the end of a reporting period.

What is General Journal?

These entries are called journal entries (since they are entries into journals). A general ledger account is an account or record used to sort, store and summarize a company’s transactions. These accounts are arranged in the general ledger (and in the chart of accounts) with the balance sheet accounts appearing first followed by the income statement accounts. First, the business transaction is recorded in the general journal and then the entry is posted in respective accounts in the general ledger.

What do you write in a general journal?

A general journal is used to record unique journal entries that cannot be processed in a more efficient manner. For example, checks written, sales invoices issued, purchase invoices received, and others can be recorded in a computerized accounting system when the documents are processed.

General journal

  • It states the date of the transaction, description, credit and debit information in a double bookkeeping system.
  • General journal is an initial record keeping which records all the transactions except for the ones which are recorded in a specialty journal like cash journal, purchase journal etc.

As you can see, each journal entry is recorded with the date and a short description of the transaction. Also, the debits of each transaction are listed before the credits in each transaction. As Blur Guitar, Inc. buys inventory and makes sales throughout the year, it records all of the transactions as journal entries in the general journal. At the end of the year or the end of a reporting period, these transactions are taken from the general journal and posted to individual ledgers. It is where double entry bookkeeping entries are recorded by debiting one or more accounts and crediting another one or more accounts with the same total amount.

Some organizations keep specialized journals, such as purchase journals or sales journals, that only record specific types of transactions. Debits and credits both increase by $500, and the totals stay in balance. In the case of certain types of accounting errors, it becomes necessary to go back to the general ledger and dig into the detail of each recorded transaction to locate the issue. At times, this can involve reviewing dozens of journal entries, but it is imperative to maintain reliably error-free and credible company financial statements.

It must be noted that there is a concept of duality in accounts that results in a double-entry accounting system. Hence, every business transaction is recorded in such a way that it affects two accounts in terms of credit and debit entry. A journal is also named the book of original entry, from when transactions were written in a journal prior to manually posting them to the accounts in the general ledger or subsidiary ledger.

What is a General Journal?

It is also quite useful for clarifying the more complex transactions. This approach is not used in single entry accounting, where only one account is impacted by each transaction. Transactions are recorded in all of the various journals in a debit and credit format, and are recorded in order by date, with the earliest entries being recorded first.

General journal is an initial record keeping which records all the transactions except for the ones which are recorded in a specialty journal like cash journal, purchase journal etc. It states the date of the transaction, description, credit and debit information in a double bookkeeping system. These journal entries are then used to form a general ledger and the information is transferred into respective accounts of the general ledger. The ledgers are then used to make trial balances and finally the financial statements.

Manual systems usually had a variety of journals such as a sales journal, purchases journal, cash receipts journal, cash disbursements journal, and a general journal. Depending on the business’s accounting information system, specialized journals may be used in conjunction with the general journal for record-keeping. In such case, use of the general journal may be limited to non-routine and adjusting entries. Today, most organizations use software to record transactions in general ledgers and general journals, which has dramatically streamlined these basic record keeping activities. In fact, most accounting software maintains a central repository where you can log ledger and journal entries.

General Journal Video

What is general journal with example?

General journal is a daybook or journal which is used to record transactions relating to adjustment entries, opening stock, accounting errors etc. The source documents of this prime entry book are journal voucher, copy of management reports and invoices.

general journal

Debit entries are depicted to the left of the “T” and credits are shown to the right of the “T”. The grand total balance for each “T” account appears at the bottom of the account. A number of T accounts are typically clustered together to show all of the accounts affected by an accounting transaction. The T account is a fundamental training tool in double entry accounting, showing how one side of an accounting transaction is reflected in another account.

general journal

byann