The Five Types of Accounts in Accounting

The Five Types of Accounts in Accounting

Aug 19, 2020 Bookkeeping 101 by ann

ledger account

There is a proper procedure for recording each financial transaction in this system, called as accounting process.The process starts from journal followed by ledger, trial balance, and final accounts. Journal and Ledger are the two pillars which create the base for preparing final accounts. The Journal is a book where all the transactions are recorded immediately when they take place which is then classified and transferred into concerned account known as Ledger. Information is stored in a ledger account with beginning and ending balances, which are adjusted during an accounting period with debits and credits.

A ledger entry is a record made of a business transaction. The entry may be made under either the single entry or double entry bookkeeping system, but is usually made using the double entry format, where the debit and credit sides of each entry always balance. A business may record hundreds or thousands of ledger entries in each reporting period.

Likewise,credit purchase journal will have a debit column for purchases , a debit column for GST paid, and a credit column for accounts payable. The credits for accounts payable are posted daily to subsidiary accounts payable(creditors) , and the monthly total of accounts payable as a credit to accounts payable control. The GST paid debit column is posted as a monthly total to GST paid (a contra-liability account). Every business transaction which can be measured in monetary terms finds a place in the accounting transactions of a firm.

It is non-specific, meaning that you record everything in the journal no matter where the money is going. You must first post your transactions in a journal before your post them in a ledger.There are many computer programs, like Quicken, QuickBooks, and more, which will help your write journals and ledgers accurately and efficiently.

The transactions in a journal are recorded in a chronological order making it easy to identify the transactions are associated with a given business day, week, or another billing period. By contrast, the arrangement of entries within a ledger has more to do with grouping like transactions together into specific accounts for purposes of assessing the data for internal financial and accounting purposes. The journal and ledger both play an important role in the accounting process. The business transactions are primarily recorded in the journal and thereafter posted into the ledger under respective heads.

An accounting journal entry is a formal transaction recording in which debit and credit transaction are reported in the general ledger. Any cash receipts journal entries related to trade debtor settlements are recorded as credits daily in the relevant subsidiary accounts receivables ledgers.

ledger account

What are Different Types of Ledgers?

Ledgers allow the company to quickly view all transactions in an account at once. Fortunately, keeping a ledger is fairly simple, requiring you to log every financial transaction from your business in a journal and the general ledger. While manually completed earlier, many companies use automated accounting packages that require minimum human intervention to prepare financial accounts at present. This is time-saving and reduces the possibility of human errors.

Ledger account

How do you create a ledger account?

A ledger account contains a record of business transactions. It is a separate record within the general ledger that is assigned to a specific asset, liability, equity item, revenue type, or expense type. Examples of ledger accounts are: Accounts receivable. Inventory.

This is the principal set of accounts where all transactions conducted within the financial year are recorded. The information for general ledger is derived from the general journal which is an initial book for entering transactions. General ledger contains all the debit and credit entries of transactions and is separated with classes of accounts. There are five main types of classes or accounts as follows. Double entry system of bookkeeping says that every transaction affects two accounts.

While many financial transactions are posted in both the journal and ledger, there are significant differences in the purpose and function of each of these accounting books. In a manual accounting system, the journal entries are prepared first and then transferred to general ledger at some later period. It may be a tedious and time consuming process for companies with numerous business transactions. A computerized accounting system, on the other hand, is more fast and more accurate. Transfer your journal entries to account ledgers regularly.

Finally, put the difference between the debit and credit amount in the balance column. Use account ledgers to keep track of specific transactions like cash, accounts receivable, or sales. Journals are where you write the date, details and amount of every single business transaction based on its type. But ledgers break this information up into specific accounts, allowing you to see all of your transactions, like Cash, Accounts Receivable, Sales, on their own sheets. Keeping a ledger is one of the tenets of basic accounting.

So the amount of the journal entry ($25,000) is written on the debit side of the cash account and credit side of the sales account. All journal entries are similarly posted to accounts in general ledger.

To write an accounting ledger, make 6 columns and label them “date,” “description,” “journal number,” “debit,” “credit,” and “balance.” Then, fill in the first 2 columns with the date and description of the transaction. Next, write down the journal number the account is in in the journal number column. If you received money, write down how much in the debit column, and if you spent money, write down how much in the credit column.

  • A general ledger is used by businesses that employ the double-entry bookkeeping method, which means that each financial transaction affects at least two general ledger accounts and each entry has a debit and a credit transaction.

It’s important to note here that accounts usually have their own specific account number. The debit part of the above journal entry is “cash account” and the credit part is “sales account”.

In this article, we have compiled all the important differences between Journal and Ledger in accounting, in tabular form. Before you can completely understand the process of accounting, you have to understand the key concepts of the accounting industry. Two of those concepts are the ledger and the chart of accounts.

ledger account

Posting from general journal to general ledger (or simply posting) is a process in which entries from general journal are periodically transferred to ledger accounts (also known as T-accounts). It is the second step of accounting cycle because business transactions are first recorded in the journal and then they are posted to respective ledger accounts in the general ledger.

Individual transactions are identified within a ledger account with a transaction number or other notation, so that one can research the reason why a transaction was entered into a ledger account. Transactions may be caused by normal business activity, such as billing customers or recording supplier invoices, or they may involve adjusting entries, which call for the use of journal entries.

An account ledger notes every transaction by account — so you have a ledger for Cash, Accounts Receivable, etc. E.g. ABC is a company which does around 75% of their sales on credit; as a result, it has many accounts receivables. Recording financial information is a lengthy and time-consuming process, and its end result is the preparation of year-end financial statements. A business conducts many transactions within an accounting year, and these should be recorded in different accounts according to corresponding accounting standards.

The ledger, which is also known as the book of final entry, is the book or computer printout that contains the accounts. The chart of accounts is a listing of all accounts that are related to a company. Each and every transaction in the business world results in a change to the balance of at least two accounts.

Balancing a Ledger Account

A general ledger is used by businesses that employ the double-entry bookkeeping method, which means that each financial transaction affects at least two general ledger accounts and each entry has a debit and a credit transaction. Double-entry transactions are posted in two columns, with debit postings on the left and credit entries on the right, and the total of all debit and credit entries must balance.

In order to record such transactions, a system of debit and credit has been devised, which records such events through two different accounts. A journal is the original source of the information contained in your financial reports. It sometimes is referred to as the book of original entry. After entries are posted to the journal, your accounting system transfers the information to the ledger, which then is used to produce your income statements and balance sheets. The ledger is referred to as the book of final entry.

Sub-account Numbers

What are the different types of ledger accounts?

Income Statement Ledger Accounts
This is the amount of cash paid against electricity bill. The expense ledger is being debited to account for the increase in expense. The corresponding credit entry has been made in the cash ledger. This represents the amount of expense charged to the income statement.

SequentiallyAccount-wiseDebit and CreditColumnsSidesNarrationMustNot necessary.BalancingNeed not to be balanced.Must be balanced. Know that a journal is a list of every transaction your company makes. An accounting journal records the details, date, and amount of all the money flowing in and out of your business.

General ledger and sub ledger are such accounts that record business transactions. The key difference between general ledger and sub ledger is that while general ledger is the set of master accounts where transactions are recorded, sub ledger is an intermediary set of accounts that are linked to the general ledger. The relationship between these two is that multiple sub ledgers are attached to the general ledger. Ledgers break up the financial information from the journals into specific accounts such as Cash, Accounts Receivable and Sales, on their own sheets. This allows you to see the details of all your transactions.

The financial transactions are summarized and recorded as per the double entry system in a journal. It’s also known as the primary book of accounting or the book of original entry. These transactions are recorded throughout the year by debiting and crediting these accounts. The transactions are caused by normal business activities such as billing customers or through adjusting entries.

Journal is also known as book of primary entry, which records transactions in chronological order. On the other hand, Legder, or otherwise known as principal book implies a set of accounts in which similar transactions, relating to person, asset, revenue, liability or expense are tracked.