# How to Calculate Cost of Goods Sold

Jun 26, 2020 Bookkeeping 101 by ann

But both of these expenses are subtracted from the company’s total sales or revenue figures. Retailers typically use the cost of sales, whereas manufacturers use the cost of goods sold.

Since service-only businesses cannot directly tie any operating expenses to something tangible, they cannot list any cost of goods sold on their income statements. Instead, service-only companies typically show the cost of sales or cost of revenue. Businesses that might have no cost of goods sold include attorneys, painters, business consultants, and doctors.

When subtracted from revenue, COGS helps determine a company’s gross profit. The most common way to calculate COGS is to take the beginning annual inventory amount, add all purchases, and then subtract the year ending inventory from that total.

Gross profit is the direct profit left over after deducting the cost of goods sold, or “cost of sales”, from sales revenue. It’s used to calculate the gross profit margin and is the initial profit figure listed on a company’s income statement. Gross profit is calculated before operating profit or net profit.

### How do you calculate cost of goods sold?

Cost of goods sold (COGS) is the cost of acquiring or manufacturing the products that a company sells during a period, so the only costs included in the measure are those that are directly tied to the production of the products, including the cost of labor, materials, and manufacturing overhead.

These costs are called the cost of goods sold (COGS), and this calculation appears in the company’s profit and loss statement (P&L). It’s also an important part of the information the company must report on its tax return. Costs of revenueexist for ongoing contract services that can include raw materials, direct labor, shipping costs, and commissions paid to sales employees. These items cannot be claimed as COGS without a physically produced product to sell, however.

Typically, the operating expenses and SG&A of a company represent the same costs – those independent of and not included in cost of goods sold. But sometimes, SG&A is listed as a subcategory of operating expenses on the income statement. Because COGS is a cost of doing business, it is recorded as a business expense on the income statements. Knowing the cost of goods sold helps analysts, investors, and managers estimate the company’s bottom line.

This reduction can be a major benefit to companies in the manufacturing or mining sectors that have lengthy production processes and COGS figures that are high. However, not all businesses can claim a COGS deduction, because not all businesses can list COGS on their income statement. Operating expenses (OPEX) and cost of goods sold (COGS) are separate sets of expenditures incurred by businesses in running their daily operations. Consequently, their values are recorded as different line items on a company’s income statement.

All the machines are the same, but they have serial numbers. Under specific identification, the cost of goods sold is 10 + 12, the particular costs of machines A and C. If she uses average cost, her costs are 22 ( (10+10+12+12)/4 x 2).

## Formula and Calculation for COGS

Cost of goods sold is the accounting term used to describe the expenses incurred to produce the goods or services sold by a company. These are direct costs only, and only businesses with a product or service to sell can list COGS on their income statement.

They should also account for their inventories and take advantage of tax deductions like other retailers, including listings of cost of goods sold (COGS) on their income statement. SG&A expenses are typically the costs associated with a company’s overall overhead since they can not be directly traced to the production of a product or service.

SG&A includes nearly everything that isn’t included incost of goods sold(COGS). Interest expense is one of the notable expenses not in SG&A and is listed as a separate line item on the income statement. Also, research and development costs are not included in SG&A.

• Cost of goods sold is the accounting term used to describe the expenses incurred to produce the goods or services sold by a company.
• When subtracted from revenue, COGS helps determine a company’s gross profit.

The cost of sending the cars to dealerships and the cost of the labor used to sell the car would be excluded. Generally speaking, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) allows companies to deduct the cost of goods that are used to either make or purchase the products they sell for their business. For accounting and tax purposes, these are listed under the entry line-item cost of goods sold (COGS).

Additional costs may include freight paid to acquire the goods, customs duties, sales or use taxes not recoverable paid on materials used, and fees paid for acquisition. For financial reporting purposes such period costs as purchasing department, warehouse, and other operating expenses are usually not treated as part of inventory or cost of goods sold. For U.S. income tax purposes, some of these period costs must be capitalized as part of inventory.

## Cost of Revenue vs. COGS

Some of your expenses may be included in figuring the cost of goods sold. The cost of goods sold is deducted from your gross receipts to figure your gross profit for the year. If you include an expense in the cost of goods sold, you cannot deduct it again as a business expense. At the start of 2009, she has no machines or parts on hand. She buys machines A and B for 10 each, and later buys machines C and D for 12 each.

Costs of selling, packing, and shipping goods to customers are treated as operating expenses related to the sale. Both International and U.S. accounting standards require that certain abnormal costs, such as those associated with idle capacity, must be treated as expenses rather than part of inventory. Cost of sales, also known as the cost of revenue, and cost of goods sold (COGS), both keep track of how much it costs a business to produce a good or service to be sold to customers.

This amount includes the cost of the materials and labor directly used to create the good. It excludes indirect expenses, such as distribution costs and sales force costs. The Income Statement is one of a company’s core financial statements that shows their profit and loss over a period of time. This amount is included with other business income on Line 12 of Schedule 1 of your 1040.

The IRS website even lists some examples of “personal service businesses” that do not calculate COGS on their income statements. Businesses need to track all of the costs that are directly and indirectly involved in producing their products for sale.

Thus, her profit for accounting and tax purposes may be 20, 18, or 16, depending on her inventory method. After the sales, her inventory values are either 20, 22 or 24. The cost of goods sold (COGS), also referred to as the cost of sales or cost of services, is how much it costs to produce your products or services. COGS include direct material and direct labor expenses that go into the production of each good or service that is sold. Cost of goods sold (COGS) refers to the direct costs of producing the goods sold by a company.

Both the cost of sales and COGS include the direct costs associated with the production of a company’s goods and services. These costs include direct labor, direct materials, such as raw materials, and the overhead that’s directly tied to the production facility or manufacturing plant. Selling, general, and administrative expenses also consist of a company’s operating expenses that are not included in the direct costs of production or cost of goods sold. While this is typically synonymous with operating expenses, many times companies list SG&A as a separate line item on the income statement below cost of goods sold, under expenses. For example, the COGS for an automaker would include the material costs for the parts that go into making the car plus the labor costs used to put the car together.

Cost of goods sold is typically listed as a separate line item on the income statement. There are also costs of revenue for ongoing contract services that can even include raw materials, direct labor, shipping costs, and commissions paid to sales employees. Even these cannot be claimed as COGS without a physically produced product to sell, however.

## FIFO

The popularity of online markets such as eBay and Etsy has resulted in an expansion of businesses that transact through these markets. Some businesses operate exclusively through online retail, taking advantage of a worldwide target market and low operating expenses. Though non-traditional, these businesses are still required to pay taxes and prepare financial documents like any other company.

## Operating Expenses vs. COGS

OPEX are not included incost of goods sold(COGS) but consist of the direct costs involved in the production of a company’s goods and services. COGS includes direct labor, direct materials or raw materials, and overhead costs for the production facility.