Computer-assisted modeling has made assumption testing more efficient. The use of powerful processors permits online, real-time decision making through immediate calculations of alternative cash flow statements, balance sheets, and income statements. In the past, business owners would traditionally issue a quote and then have to produce an invoice once the customer had agreed to the terms laid out. However, KashFlow streamlines this process – once a customer has agreed to the prices set out in the proforma invoice, it can be converted to a ‘true’ invoice with just one click. A quotation would normally be sent if a customer makes an enquiry, or if they want to find out more about a product or service.
Invoicing software comes with a pre-built proforma invoice template and lets you send your proforma invoice to your customer in just a few clicks. For example, it’s sometimes neccessary to issue a sales document before the details of a sale are completely finalised.
Instead of being a demand for payment, proforma invoices are good faith estimates that lets the customer know exactly what to expect. Essentially, pro forma statements present expected corporate results to outsiders and are often used in investment proposals.
Similarly, when a new corporation is envisioned, its founders will prepare pro forma financial statements for the information of prospective investors. Also, banks will request pro forma statements in lieu of tax returns for a start up business in order to verify cash flow before issuing a loan or line of credit. If so, they may issue pro forma financial statements that include the corrections they believe are necessary to provide a better view of the business. The Securities and Exchange Commission takes a dim view of this kind of adjusted reporting, and has issued regulations about it in their Regulation G. The purpose of pro forma financial statements is to facilitate comparisons of historic data and projections of future performance.
Pro Forma Statements
Managers use them in the decision-making process when constructing an annual budget, developing long-range plans, and choosing among capital expenditures. For a company that decided to acquire part of a new business or dispose of part of its existing business, a meaningful pro forma statement should adjust the historical figures to demonstrate how the acquired part would have fared had it been a corporation. Pro forma statements should also set forth conventional financial statements of the acquiring company, and pro forma financial statements of the business to be acquired.
A proforma invoice declares the seller’s commitment to provide the goods or services specified to the buyer at certain prices, but is not recorded in your accounts until a true invoice is issued to confirm the final prices and information. A proforma invoice is a useful addition to any company’s invoicing process – unfortunately, they’re often overlooked or misunderstood, which means that many small businesses and freelancers aren’t getting the most out of their invoicing software. Pro forma analysis typically includes sections that forecast operating expenses, forecasts any changes in total assets, changes in total equities and analyzes the cost of financing versus the long-term financial reward (or loss) of the proposed change.
Pro forma tax returns are for internal use only and are not filed with the IRS. A quicker, easier way to create a proforma invoice is with invoicing software like Debitoor.
Pro forma adjustments would restate partnership operations on a corporate basis, including estimated partnership salaries as officers and estimated federal and state taxes on income, as well as pro forma net income and pro forma net income per share. Accountants make similar adjustments to pro forma statements for businesses previously operated as sole proprietorships and Subchapter S corporations.
A pro forma income statement is usually a financial statement that uses the pro forma calculation method, often designed to draw potential investors’ focus to specific figures when a company issues an earnings announcement. Companies may also design pro forma statements to assess the potential earnings value of a proposed business change, such as an acquisition or a merger.
In business, pro forma financial statements are prepared in advance of a planned transaction, such as a merger, an acquisition, a new capital investment, or a change in capital structure such as incurrence of new debt or issuance of stock. The pro forma models the anticipated results of the transaction, with particular emphasis on the projected cash flows, net revenues and taxes. Pro forma figures should be clearly labeled as such and the reason for any deviation from reported past figures clearly explained.
Managers are then able to make business decisions based on the potential benefits and costs. Both proforma invoices and quotations let a customer know how much an order might cost, and both are sent at a similar point in the sales process – i.e. before a sale is entirely finalised. Like a regular invoice, proforma invoices should include contact details, a date of issue, a description of the goods or services provided, the total amount due, and any VAT. They might also include payment details or terms and conditions – such as which methods of payment you accept and when payment is expected. Lenders and investors will require such statements to structure or confirm compliance with debt covenants such as debt service reserve coverage and debt to equity ratios.
- In business, pro forma financial statements are prepared in advance of a planned transaction, such as a merger, an acquisition, a new capital investment, or a change in capital structure such as incurrence of new debt or issuance of equity.
- Consequently, pro forma statements summarize the projected future status of a company, based on the current financial statements.
Pro forma statements can be used as the basis of comparison and analysis to provide management, investment analysts, and credit officers with a feel for the particular nature of a business’s financial structure under various conditions. In managerial accounting, accountants design financial statements prepared in the pro forma method ahead of a planned transaction such as an acquisition, merger, change in capital structure, or new capital investment. These models forecast the expected result of the proposed transaction, with emphasis placed on estimated net revenues, cash flows, and taxes.
Pro Forma Statements for Changes in Entity and for Business Combinations
Notes to the pro forma statements explain the adjustments reflected in the statements. When presenting the historical operations of a business previously operated as a partnership, the financial information is adjusted to bring the statement in line with the acquiring corporation. Historical data listed in these instances includes net sales; cost of sales; gross profit on sales; selling, general, and administrative expenses; other income; other deductions; and income before taxes on income.
For example, management might prepare pro forma statements to gauge the effects of a potential merger or joint venture. It also might prepare pro forma statements to evaluate the consequences of refinancing debt through issuance of preferred stock, common stock, or other debt. Pro forma, a Latin term meaning “as a matter of form,” is applied to the process of presenting financial projections for a specific time period in a standardized format. Businesses use pro forma statements for decision-making in planning and control, and for external reporting to owners, investors, and creditors.
Consequently, pro forma statements summarize the projected future status of a company, based on the current financial statements. A proforma invoice is a non-official invoice that is sent to a customer before the final details of a sale are confirmed. They are often used at the same point in the sales process as a quotation; however, quotes and proforma invoices serve slightly different purposes.
In these circumstances users of financial statements need to evaluate a new or proposed business entity on a basis comparable to the predecessor business in order to understand the impact of the change on cash flow, income, and financial position. Pro forma adjustments to accounting principles and accounting estimates reformat the statements of the new entity and the acquired business to conform with those of the predecessor. Businesses frequently prepare pro forma financial statements to see how a decision could change the way investors view the business. Accountants preparing the report use all the same numbers, but add in the projected revenues and expenses from the hypotheticals according to generally accepted accounting principles. Similarly, tax accountants can prepare a pro forma tax return to illustrate how a hypothetical change would affect overall tax liability.
A pro forma analysis concludes with forecast income statements and forecast balance sheets that incorporates changes in taxes and interest. Pro forma statements are an integral part of business planning and control.
The purpose of a proforma invoice is to streamline the sales process. Once you send the proforma invoice, the customer agrees to the price and then you send the goods or services.
When a company changes an accounting method, it uses pro forma financial statements to report the cumulative effect of the change for the period during which the change occurred. A company prepares pro forma financial statements when it expects to experience or has just experienced significant financial changes. The pro forma financial statements present the impact of these changes on the company’s financial position as depicted in the income statement, balance sheet, and the cash-flow statement.
What is the purpose of a pro forma?
Pro forma, a Latin term meaning “as a matter of form,” is applied to the process of presenting financial projections for a specific time period in a standardized format. Businesses use pro forma statements for decision-making in planning and control, and for external reporting to owners, investors, and creditors.
A proforma invoice is sent if a customer has committed to a purchase, but cannot be sent a true invoice because the final details of the sale are not certain. A proforma invoice is a commercial pre-shipment document prepared by the seller and delivered to the buyer/agent, to convey information of the goods to be delivered. The instrument contains a description of goods, i.e. quantity, price, weight, kind and other specifications. It is a declaration by the seller to provide the products and services to the buyer on the specified date and price.
In business, pro forma financial statements are prepared in advance of a planned transaction, such as a merger, an acquisition, a new capital investment, or a change in capital structure such as incurrence of new debt or issuance of equity. The pro forma models the anticipated results of the transaction, with particular emphasis on the projected cash flows, net revenues and (for taxable entities) taxes.