May 25, 2020 Bookkeeping 101 by ann

amortized cost

Amortization is charged to one of the accounts in the capital costs section of expenses. Financing costs are accumulated as an intangible asset in the other assets section of the balance sheet. Amortization schedules begin with the outstanding loan balance. For monthly payments, the interest payment is calculated by multiplying the interest rate by the outstanding loan balance and dividing by twelve.

Amortization can refer to the process of paying off debt over time in regular installments of interest and principal sufficient to repay the loan in full by its maturity date. With mortgage and auto loan payments, a higher percentage of the flat monthly payment goes toward interest early in the loan. With each subsequent payment, a greater percentage of the payment goes toward the loan’s principal. Amortization can be calculated using most modern financial calculators, spreadsheet software packages such as Microsoft Excel, or online amortization charts. First, the current balance of the loan is multiplied by the interest rate attributable to the current period to find the interest due for the period.

This is a function of the real estate costs and not financing. The balance of items in the prepaid column are directly related to the financing agreement.

amortized cost

Amortization is the process of spreading out a loan (such as a home loan or auto loans) into a series of fixed payments. While each monthly payment remains the same, the payment is made up of parts that change over time. A portion of each payment goes towards interest costs (what your lendergets paid for the loan) and reducing your loan balance (also known as paying off the loan principal). If a borrower chooses a shorter amortization period for their mortgage—for example, 15 years—they will save considerably on interest over the life of the loan, and own the house sooner.

At the beginning of the loan, interest costs are at their highest. As time goes on, more and more of each payment goes towards your principal and you pay proportionately less in interest each month. Your last loan payment will pay off the final amount remaining on your debt. For example, after exactly 30 years (or 360 monthly payments) you’ll pay off a 30-year mortgage.

amortized cost


However most if not all lending institutions use a risk reduction feature referred to as a ‘call’ or ‘balloon’ provision. This allows the lender to amortize the principal over a longer period of time but force the final balance of principal payment earlier. When a business acquires a loan there are typically closing costs involved. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) require these financing costs to be amortized (allocated) over the life of the loan.


To calculate amortization, you also need the term of the loan and the payment amount each period. Interest is calculated based on the most recent ending balance of the loan and the interest amount owed decreases as payments are made. This is because any payment in excess of the interest amount reduces the principal, which in turn, reduces the balance on which the interest is calculated.

The amount of principal due in a given month is the total monthly payment (a flat amount) minus the interest payment for that month. The next month, the outstanding loan balance is calculated as the previous month’s outstanding balance minus the most recent principal payment.

  • With amortization, the payment amount consists of both principal repayment and interest on the debt.
  • As more principal is repaid, less interest is due on the principal balance.
  • Amortization refers to the reduction of a debt over time by paying the same amount each period, usually monthly.

Amortization refers to the reduction of a debt over time by paying the same amount each period, usually monthly. With amortization, the payment amount consists of both principal repayment and interest on the debt. As more principal is repaid, less interest is due on the principal balance. Over time, the interest portion of each monthly payment declines and the principal repayment portion increases. Amortization is an accounting technique used to periodically lower the book value of a loan or intangible asset over a set period of time.

How do you calculate amortized cost?

Amortized cost is that accumulated portion of the recorded cost of a fixed asset that has been charged to expense through either depreciation or amortization. Depreciation is used to ratably reduce the cost of a tangible fixed asset, and amortization is used to ratably reduce the cost of an intangible fixed asset.

Repeat these steps until you have created an amortization schedule for the life of the loan. The monthly amortization amount is based on the life of the loan. If the loan has a balloon payment date, amortization is calculated based on the balloon time period and not the loan amortization period. At refinancing, any remaining balance in the unamortized financing costs is expended as an unusual one time cost in other expenses. Many accountants advocate accumulating the existing refinancing costs with the original financing costs and recalculating amortization over the life of the new loan.

Also, interest rates on shorter-term loans are often at a discount compared with longer-term loans. Short amortization mortgages are good options for borrowers who can handle higher monthly payments without hardship; they still involve making 180 sequential payments. It’s important to consider whether or not you can maintain that level of payment. The costs of the loan are allocated over the life of the loan. Most loans have a definitive period of time such as 84 months (7 years), 120 months (10 years) and so on.

As the interest portion of an amortization loan decreases, the principal portion of the payment increases. Therefore, interest and principal have an inverse relationship within the payments over the life of the amortized loan. This schedule is quite useful for properly recording the interest and principal components of a loan payment. Although your total payment remains equal each period, you’ll be paying off the loan’s interest and principal in different amounts each month.

What is an example of amortization?

Amortization = (Bond Issue Price – Face Value) / Bond Term Simply divide the $3,000 discount by the number of reporting periods. For an annual reporting of a five-year bond, this would be five. If you calculate it monthly, divide the discount by 60 months. The amortized cost would be $600 per year, or $50 per month.

It is written for bookkeepers, novice accountants and small business owners. The final section is an in-depth example and model to follow. Amortization of financing costs is the process of allocating financing costs over the life of the loan to the income statement.


There are several principles the reader needs to understand to properly calculate and assign these costs to the financial statements. This lesson explains the basic business principlesof amortization of financing costs, organization of information, reporting and interpretation.

GAAP has rules for both methods, so consult with the company’s CPA for which method to use. Gather the information you need to calculate the loan’s amortization.

Amortization tables help you understand how a loan works, and they can help you predict your outstanding balance or interest cost at any point in the future. Prepaid costs are typically those costs required upfront to create and investigate the financial attributes of a deal. Notice that there are legal costs to negotiate and create a binding purchasing agreement.

First, amortization is used in the process of paying off debt through regular principal and interest payments over time. An amortization schedule is used to reduce the current balance on a loan, for example a mortgage or car loan, through installment payments.